The fifth wheel dating
In civil society this meant in practice that it was generally restricted to monarchs and the highest nobles. The Church taught that any deviation from orthodoxy amounted to lèse majesté against God, and therefore treason again the King of Kings.
This meant that in contrast to civil society, treason and therefore torture were common in the Church.
In contrast, torturous executions were usually public, and drew large crowds of spectators.
Others suffered a dishonourable death death on the gallows or through burning at the stake.
In the middle ages torture was used to extract information, force confessions, punish suspects, frighten opponents, and satisfy personal hatred.
Historically, ancient Greeks and Romans used torture for interrogation.
Dominicans gained a reputation as the most fearsomely innovative torturers.
Torture had long been practised by bishops, but it was formally authorised for the Medieval Inquisition in 1252.